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MySQL主从复制与读写分离

mysql技术 尚露华 146次浏览 已收录 0个评论

MySQL主从复制与读写分离
2016.3.16 by linuxfan.cn
环境介绍:
主服务器(master):192.168.100.155
从服务器(slave1,slave2):192.168.100.153-154
代理服务器(amoeba):192.168.100.156
应用客户端(app):192.168.100.157

1.搭建时间服务器:
主节点上安装ntp时间服务:192.168.100.155
yum -y install ntp
sed -i ‘/^server/s/^/#/g’ /etc/ntp.conf
cat <<END >>/etc/ntp.conf
server 127.127.1.0
fudge 127.127.1.0 stratum 8
END
/etc/init.d/ntpd restart
netstat -utpln |grep ntp
从节点同步时间:192.168.100.153-154
yum -y install ntpdate
/usr/sbin/ntpdate 192.168.100.155

2.安装mysql:192.168.100.153-155
wget ftp://ftp.linuxfan.cn/tools/lamp_install_publis-app-2015-07-16.tar.xz
tar Jxvf lamp_install_publis-app-2015-07-16.tar.xz
mysql_install.sh
mysql_config.sh
reboot

提示:
[root@localhost ~]# cd bin/
[root@localhost bin]# cat mysql_install.sh
#!/bin/bash
##第一配置yum,安装ncurses依赖包
yum -y install ncurses-*
#解压cmake,安装基础环境
tar zxvf /root/cmake-2.8.6.tar.gz -C /usr/src/
cd /usr/src/cmake-2.8.6
#配置,编译安装cmake
./configure &&gmake &&gmake install
##解压mysql
tar zxvf /root/mysql-5.5.22.tar.gz -C /usr/src/
cd /usr/src/mysql-5.5.22/
#cmake进行配置mysql
cmake -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/mysql #指定安装目录\
-DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8 #指定字符集为utf8 \
-DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8_general_ci ##指定字符校验 \
-DWITH_EXTRA_CHARSETS=all ##支持额外字符集\
-DSYSCONFDIR=/etc/ ##指定配置文件位置
make &&make install #编译安装
if [ -e /usr/local/mysql ];then
echo "mysql install successfully."
fi
[root@localhost bin]#
[root@localhost bin]# cat mysql_config.sh
#!/bin/bash
#1.复制配置文件
cp /usr/src/mysql-5.5.22/support-files/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf
#2.添加系统服务
cp /usr/src/mysql-5.5.22/support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqld
chmod +x /etc/init.d/mysqld
chkconfig –add mysqld
chkconfig mysqld on
#3.优化PATH路径,执行命令时方便,单引号双引号都行
grep mysql /etc/profile
if [ $? -eq 0 ];then
echo "PATH is set."
else
echo "export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/mysql/bin" >>/etc/profile
source /etc/profile ##执行文件
fi
#4.初始化mysql,创建用户,赋权
useradd -M -s /sbin/nologin mysql
chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/mysql
/usr/local/mysql/scripts/mysql_install_db \
–basedir=/usr/local/mysql \
–datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data –user=mysql
#5.启动mysql,并设置为开机启动
if [ -e /tmp/mysql.sock ];then
/etc/init.d/mysqld restart
else
/etc/init.d/mysqld start
fi
chkconfig mysqld on
#6.修改密码,并提示密码
mysqladmin -u root password ‘123123’ &&echo "mysql root password is 123123"

3.配置MySQL主从复制:
1)主服务器配置:192.168.100.155
sed -i ‘s/^log-bin=./log-bin=master-bin\nlog-slave-updates=ture/g’ /etc/my.cnf
sed -i ‘/^server-id/s/1/11/g’ /etc/my.cnf
/etc/init.d/mysqld restart
mysql -uroot -p123123
mysql> grant replication slave on
.* to ‘myslave’@’192.168.100.%’ identified by ‘123123’;
mysql> flush privileges;
mysql> show master status; ##记住File的及Position的值,此处为master-bin.000001和337
mysql> create database db_test; ##创建测试数据库
mysql> quit
2)配置从服务器1:192.168.100.153
sed -i ‘/^server-id/s/1/22/g’ /etc/my.cnf
sed -i ‘/^server-id/arelay-log=relay-log-bin\nrelay-log-index=slave-relay-bin.index’ /etc/my.cnf
/etc/init.d/mysqld restart
mysql -uroot -p123123
mysql> change master to master_host=’192.168.100.155′,master_user=’myslave’,master_password=’123123′,master_log_file=’master-bin.000001′,master_log_pos=337;
mysql> start slave;
mysql> show slave status\G; ##查看无error即可
mysql> show databases; ##验证数据库是否同步
mysql> quit
3)配置从服务器2:192.168.100.154
sed -i ‘/^server-id/s/1/33/g’ /etc/my.cnf
sed -i ‘/^server-id/arelay-log=relay-log-bin\nrelay-log-index=slave-relay-bin.index’ /etc/my.cnf
/etc/init.d/mysqld restart
mysql -uroot -p123123
mysql> change master to master_host=’192.168.100.155′,master_user=’myslave’,master_password=’123123′,master_log_file=’master-bin.000001′,master_log_pos=337;
mysql> start slave;
mysql> show slave status\G; ##查看无error即可
mysql> show databases; ##验证数据库是否同步
mysql> quit

4.搭建MySQL读写分离:
1)安装软件:192.168.100.156
lftp ftp.linuxfan.cn

cd tools/
get amoeba-mysql-binary-2.2.0.tar.gz jdk-6u14-linux-x64.bin
bye
yum -y remove java
chmod +x jdk-6u14-linux-x64.bin
./jdk-6u14-linux-x64.bin
mv jdk1.6.0_14/ /usr/local/jdk1.6
vi /etc/profile
export JAVA_HOME=/usr/local/jdk1.6
export CLASSPATH=$CLASSPATH:$JAVA_HOME/lib:$JAVA_HOME/jre/lib
export PATH=$JAVA_HOME/lib:$JAVA_HOME/jre/bin/:$PATH:$HOME/bin
export AMOEBA_HOME=/usr/local/amoeba
export PATH=$PATH:$AMOEBA_HOME
:wq
source /etc/profile
java -version
mkdir /usr/local/amoeba
tar zxvf amoeba-mysql-binary-2.2.0.tar.gz -C /usr/local/amoeba/
chmod -R 755 /usr/local/amoeba/
/usr/local/amoeba/bin/amoeba ##验证
2)数据授权给amoeba读写权限:
mysql> grant all on . to linuxfan@’192.168.100.%’ identified by ‘123123’; ##在192.168.100.155上完成
mysql> show grants for linuxfan@’192.168.100.%’; ##在192.168.100.153-154上查看是否同步了权限
3)修改配置文件:192.168.100.156
vim /usr/local/amoeba/conf/amoeba.xml
30 <property name="user">amoeba</property>
31
32 <property name="password">123456</property>
115 <property name="defaultPool">master</property>
116
117 <property name="writePool">master</property> ##注意删除<!– –>的注释
118 <property name="readPool">slaves</property>
:set nu ##显示行号
:wq

vim /usr/local/amoeba/conf/dbServers.xml
25 <!– mysql user –>
26 <property name="user">linuxfan</property> ##该用户必须是上一步授权的用户
27
28 <!– mysql password –> ##修改
29 <property name="password">123123</property> ##删除下一行的“–>”
44 <dbServer name="master" parent="abstractServer"> ##修改为master
45 <factoryConfig>
46 <!– mysql ip –>
47 <property name="ipAddress">192.168.100.155</property> ##指定正确的master的ip
51 <dbServer name="slave1" parent="abstractServer"> ##修改为slave1
52 <factoryConfig>
53 <!– mysql ip –>
54 <property name="ipAddress">192.168.100.153</property> ##指定slave1的ip地址
55 </factoryConfig>
56 </dbServer>
57 <dbServer name="slave2" parent="abstractServer"> ##添加如下6行,指定slave2的ip
58 <factoryConfig>
59 <!– mysql ip –>
60 <property name="ipAddress">192.168.100.154</property>
61 </factoryConfig>
62 </dbServer>
64 <dbServer name="slaves" virtual="true"> ##修改为slaves
70 <property name="poolNames">slave1,slave2</property> ##修改集群的成员名称用逗号隔开
:wq
/usr/local/amoeba/bin/amoeba start& ##启动代理服务
netstat -utpln |grep 8066 ##验证

5.测试读写分离
1)验证主从复制:192.168.100.157
yum -y install mysql
mysql -uamoeba -p123456 -h 192.168.100.156 -P 8066 ##登录db集群192.168.100.157
mysql>show databases;
mysql> use db_test;
mysql> create table linuxfan(id int(10),name varchar(10),address varchar(20));
在192.168.100.153-155上查看结果:
mysql -uroot -p123123
mysql> use db_test;
mysql> show tables; ##已然同步

2)关闭slave1,slave2的复制功能:192.168.100.153-154
mysql> stop slave;

3)分别在master,slave1,slave2上创建不同的数据:
master:
mysql> insert into linuxfan values(1,’hehe’,’this is master’);
slave1:
mysql> insert into linuxfan values(2,’hehe’,’this is slave1′);
slave2:
mysql> insert into linuxfan values(3,’hehe’,’this is slave2′);

4)应用客户端验证读:192.168.100.157
mysql> select * from linuxfan; ##第一次查询
+——+——+—————-+
| id | name | address |
+——+——+—————-+
| 2 | hehe | this is slave1 |
+——+——+—————-+
1 row in set (0.02 sec)

mysql> select from linuxfan; ##第二次查询
+——+——+—————-+
| id | name | address |
+——+——+—————-+
| 3 | hehe | this is slave2 |
+——+——+—————-+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)
mysql> select
from linuxfan; ##第三次查询
+——+——+—————-+
| id | name | address |
+——+——+—————-+
| 2 | hehe | this is slave1 |
+——+——+—————-+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

5)应用客户端上验证写:
mysql> insert into linuxfan values(4,’hehe’,’app write test’); ##写入数据
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.02 sec)

mysql> select * from linuxfan; ##查不到刚写入的数据
+——+——+—————-+
| id | name | address |
+——+——+—————-+
| 3 | hehe | this is slave2 |
+——+——+—————-+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

master上验证:
mysql> select * from linuxfan; ##查到数据
+——+——+—————-+
| id | name | address |
+——+——+—————-+
| 1 | hehe | this is master |
| 4 | hehe | app write test |
+——+——+—————-+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

总结:
app写入数据时,amoeba会将数据路由到master上进行存储,app读取数据时,amoeba会将读的请求一轮询的方式发给slaves组(slave1+slave2),实现读写分离。
master和slaves间配置了主从复制,保证了数据的一致性


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