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在CentOS7上安装KVM虚拟化软件

Centos技术 lujj45 62次浏览 已收录 0个评论

在CentOS7上安装KVM虚拟化软件

CentOS7.6虚拟化软件:
KVM是基于内核的虚拟机(Kernel-based Virtual Machine)。
QEMU软件(qemu-kvm)能够创建和管理 KVM 虚拟机。
Libvirt是一套提供了多种语言接口的API,为各种虚拟化工具提供一套方便、可靠的编程接口,不仅支持 KVM,而且支持 Xen 等其它虚拟机。
Virsh是一套基于文本的管理虚拟机的命令。
Virt-manager是一套用 python 编写的虚拟机管理图形界面。

试验机器:
CPU支持Intel VT
内存8GB以上
硬盘200GB以上

1.安装CentOS7.6组件

在安装操作系统时,选择Virtualization Host软件中的Virtualization Platform、Compatibilty Libraries、Development Tools、System Administration Tools;
选择GNOME Desktop软件中的GNOME Applications。

2.检查cpu的vmx支持

[root@C76 ~]# cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep vmx
flags : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts acpi mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht tm pbe syscall nx pdpe1gb rdtscp lm constant_tsc arch_perfmon pebs bts rep_good nopl xtopology nonstop_tsc aperfmperf eagerfpu pni pclmulqdq dtes64 monitor ds_cpl vmx smx est tm2 ssse3 cx16 xtpr pdcm pcid dca sse4_1 sse4_2 x2apic popcnt tsc_deadline_timer aes xsave avx f16c rdrand lahf_lm epb ssbd ibrs ibpb stibp tpr_shadow vnmi flexpriority ept vpid fsgsbase smep erms xsaveopt dtherm ida arat pln pts spec_ctrl intel_stibp flush_l1d

3.检查bridge网络

参考其它文档,建立网桥virbr1

[root@C76 ~]# ifconfig
virbr1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
inet 192.168.68.121 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.68.255
inet6 fe80::1c7d:6fff:fe72:9884 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x20<link>
ether e0:97:96:1b:6a:ca txqueuelen 1000 (Ethernet)
RX packets 0 bytes 0 (0.0 B)
RX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 frame 0
TX packets 111 bytes 5259 (5.1 KiB)
TX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 carrier 0 collisions 0

vlan68: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
ether e0:97:96:1b:6a:ca txqueuelen 1000 (Ethernet)
RX packets 0 bytes 0 (0.0 B)
RX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 frame 0
TX packets 5298 bytes 274446 (268.0 KiB)
TX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 carrier 0 collisions 0

4.检查开发包

[root@C76 ~]# rpm -qa | grep -E "lrzsz|gcc|vim"
vim-common-7.4.160-5.el7.x86_64
vim-minimal-7.4.160-5.el7.x86_64

  • gcc-c++-4.8.5-36.el7.x86_64
    vim-filesystem-7.4.160-5.el7.x86_64
    libgcc-4.8.5-36.el7.x86_64
  • lrzsz-0.12.20-36.el7.x86_64
    vim-enhanced-7.4.160-5.el7.x86_64
    gcc-gfortran-4.8.5-36.el7.x86_64
  • gcc-4.8.5-36.el7.x86_64
    [root@C76 ~]#

5.关闭防火墙及selinux

systemctl stop firewalld.service
setenforce 0

6.安装yum包

映射iso安装盘
[root@C76 ~]# mount -t iso9660 -o loop /root/CentOS-7.6-x86_64-DVD-1810.iso /media/Centos76/

发现已安装:qemu-kvm qemu-img bridge-utils
已安装网络启动pxe包 gpxe-roms-qemu,

继续安装其它yum包,满足虚机基本功能
[root@C76 yum.repos.d]# yum -y install qemu-kvm-tools virt-manager libvirt libvirt-python libvirt-client virt-viewer virt-install
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
Resolving Dependencies
–> Running transaction check
—> Package libvirt.x86_64 0:4.5.0-10.el7 will be installed
–> Processing Dependency: libvirt-daemon-driver-lxc = 4.5.0-10.el7 for package:

libvirt-4.5.0-10.el7.x86_64
–> Processing Dependency: libvirt-daemon-config-nwfilter = 4.5.0-10.el7 for package:

libvirt-4.5.0-10.el7.x86_64
—> Package libvirt-client.x86_64 0:4.5.0-10.el7 will be installed
–> Processing Dependency: libvirt-bash-completion = 4.5.0-10.el7 for package:

libvirt-client-4.5.0-10.el7.x86_64
–> Processing Dependency: gnutls-utils for package: libvirt-client-4.5.0-

10.el7.x86_64
—> Package libvirt-python.x86_64 0:4.5.0-1.el7 will be installed
—> Package qemu-kvm-tools.x86_64 10:1.5.3-160.el7 will be installed
—> Package virt-install.noarch 0:1.5.0-1.el7 will be installed
–> Processing Dependency: virt-manager-common = 1.5.0-1.el7 for package: virt-

install-1.5.0-1.el7.noarch
—> Package virt-manager.noarch 0:1.5.0-1.el7 will be installed
—> Package virt-viewer.x86_64 0:5.0-11.el7 will be installed
–> Running transaction check
—> Package gnutls-utils.x86_64 0:3.3.29-8.el7 will be installed
–> Processing Dependency: gnutls-dane(x86-64) = 3.3.29-8.el7 for package: gnutls-

utils-3.3.29-8.el7.x86_64
–> Processing Dependency: libgnutls-dane.so.0(DANE_0_0)(64bit) for package: gnutls-

utils-3.3.29-8.el7.x86_64
–> Processing Dependency: libgnutls-dane.so.0()(64bit) for package: gnutls-utils-

3.3.29-8.el7.x86_64
—> Package libvirt-bash-completion.x86_64 0:4.5.0-10.el7 will be installed
—> Package libvirt-daemon-config-nwfilter.x86_64 0:4.5.0-10.el7 will be installed
—> Package libvirt-daemon-driver-lxc.x86_64 0:4.5.0-10.el7 will be installed
—> Package virt-manager-common.noarch 0:1.5.0-1.el7 will be installed
–> Processing Dependency: python-ipaddr for package: virt-manager-common-1.5.0-

1.el7.noarch
–> Running transaction check
—> Package gnutls-dane.x86_64 0:3.3.29-8.el7 will be installed
—> Package python-ipaddr.noarch 0:2.1.11-1.el7 will be installed
–> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

======================================================================================

=================
Package Arch Version
Repository Size

======================================================================================

=================
Installing:
libvirt x86_64 4.5.0-10.el7 c7-

media 181 k
libvirt-client x86_64 4.5.0-10.el7 c7-

media 477 k
libvirt-python x86_64 4.5.0-1.el7 c7-

media 343 k
qemu-kvm-tools x86_64 10:1.5.3-160.el7 c7-

media 230 k
virt-install noarch 1.5.0-1.el7 c7-

media 94 k
virt-manager noarch 1.5.0-1.el7 c7-

media 657 k
virt-viewer x86_64 5.0-11.el7 c7-

media 392 k
Installing for dependencies:
gnutls-dane x86_64 3.3.29-8.el7 c7-

media 36 k
gnutls-utils x86_64 3.3.29-8.el7 c7-

media 238 k
libvirt-bash-completion x86_64 4.5.0-10.el7 c7-

media 181 k
libvirt-daemon-config-nwfilter x86_64 4.5.0-10.el7 c7-

media 188 k
libvirt-daemon-driver-lxc x86_64 4.5.0-10.el7 c7-

media 313 k
python-ipaddr noarch 2.1.11-1.el7 c7-

media 35 k
virt-manager-common noarch 1.5.0-1.el7 c7-media 1.2 M
Transaction Summary

======================================================================================

=================
Install 7 Packages (+7 Dependent packages)

Total download size: 4.5 M
Installed size: 15 M
Downloading packages:



Total 123 MB/s | 4.5

MB 00:00:00
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
Warning: RPMDB altered outside of yum.
Installing : libvirt-bash-completion-4.5.0-10.el7.x86_64

       1/14 

Installing : libvirt-daemon-config-nwfilter-4.5.0-10.el7.x86_64

       2/14 

Installing : libvirt-python-4.5.0-1.el7.x86_64

       3/14 

Installing : libvirt-daemon-driver-lxc-4.5.0-10.el7.x86_64

       4/14 

Installing : gnutls-dane-3.3.29-8.el7.x86_64

       5/14 

Installing : gnutls-utils-3.3.29-8.el7.x86_64

       6/14 

Installing : libvirt-client-4.5.0-10.el7.x86_64

       7/14 

Installing : python-ipaddr-2.1.11-1.el7.noarch

       8/14 

Installing : virt-manager-common-1.5.0-1.el7.noarch

       9/14 

Installing : virt-install-1.5.0-1.el7.noarch

      10/14 

Installing : virt-manager-1.5.0-1.el7.noarch

      11/14 

Installing : libvirt-4.5.0-10.el7.x86_64

      12/14 

Installing : virt-viewer-5.0-11.el7.x86_64

      13/14 

Installing : 10:qemu-kvm-tools-1.5.3-160.el7.x86_64

      14/14 

Verifying : 10:qemu-kvm-tools-1.5.3-160.el7.x86_64

       1/14 

Verifying : python-ipaddr-2.1.11-1.el7.noarch

       2/14 

Verifying : gnutls-dane-3.3.29-8.el7.x86_64

       3/14 

Verifying : libvirt-daemon-driver-lxc-4.5.0-10.el7.x86_64

       4/14 

Verifying : libvirt-4.5.0-10.el7.x86_64

       5/14 

Verifying : libvirt-python-4.5.0-1.el7.x86_64

       6/14 

Verifying : virt-install-1.5.0-1.el7.noarch

       7/14 

Verifying : virt-viewer-5.0-11.el7.x86_64

       8/14 

Verifying : libvirt-client-4.5.0-10.el7.x86_64

       9/14 

Verifying : libvirt-daemon-config-nwfilter-4.5.0-10.el7.x86_64

      10/14 

Verifying : virt-manager-1.5.0-1.el7.noarch

      11/14 

Verifying : virt-manager-common-1.5.0-1.el7.noarch

      12/14 

Verifying : libvirt-bash-completion-4.5.0-10.el7.x86_64

      13/14 

Verifying : gnutls-utils-3.3.29-8.el7.x86_64

      14/14 

Installed:
libvirt.x86_64 0:4.5.0-10.el7 libvirt-client.x86_64 0:4.5.0-

10.el7
libvirt-python.x86_64 0:4.5.0-1.el7 qemu-kvm-tools.x86_64 10:1.5.3-

160.el7
virt-install.noarch 0:1.5.0-1.el7 virt-manager.noarch 0:1.5.0-1.el7

virt-viewer.x86_64 0:5.0-11.el7

Dependency Installed:
gnutls-dane.x86_64 0:3.3.29-8.el7 gnutls-utils.x86_64 0:3.3.29-8.el7

libvirt-bash-completion.x86_64 0:4.5.0-10.el7 libvirt-daemon-config-

nwfilter.x86_64 0:4.5.0-10.el7
libvirt-daemon-driver-lxc.x86_64 0:4.5.0-10.el7 python-ipaddr.noarch 0:2.1.11-1.el7

virt-manager-common.noarch 0:1.5.0-1.el7

Complete!
[root@C76 yum.repos.d]#

//
[root@C76 ~]# yum list | grep -E "kvm|qemu|virt|bridge" | grep -v daemon
bridge-utils.x86_64 1.5-9.el7 @anaconda
ipxe-roms-qemu.noarch 20170123-1.git4e85b27.el7_4.1 @anaconda
libgovirt.x86_64 0.3.4-1.el7 @anaconda
libvirt.x86_64 4.5.0-10.el7 @c7-media
libvirt-bash-completion.x86_64 4.5.0-10.el7 @c7-media
libvirt-client.x86_64 4.5.0-10.el7 @c7-media
libvirt-gconfig.x86_64 1.0.0-1.el7 @anaconda
libvirt-glib.x86_64 1.0.0-1.el7 @anaconda
libvirt-gobject.x86_64 1.0.0-1.el7 @anaconda
libvirt-libs.x86_64 4.5.0-10.el7 @anaconda
libvirt-python.x86_64 4.5.0-1.el7 @c7-media
qemu-guest-agent.x86_64 10:2.12.0-2.el7 @anaconda
qemu-img.x86_64 10:1.5.3-160.el7 @anaconda
qemu-kvm.x86_64 10:1.5.3-160.el7 @anaconda
qemu-kvm-common.x86_64 10:1.5.3-160.el7 @anaconda
qemu-kvm-tools.x86_64 10:1.5.3-160.el7 @c7-media
virt-install.noarch 1.5.0-1.el7 @c7-media
virt-manager.noarch 1.5.0-1.el7 @c7-media
virt-manager-common.noarch 1.5.0-1.el7 @c7-media
virt-viewer.x86_64 5.0-11.el7 @c7-media
virt-what.x86_64 1.18-4.el7 @anaconda
cockpit-bridge.x86_64 173-7.el7.centos c7-media
fence-virt.x86_64 0.3.2-13.el7 c7-media
fence-virtd.x86_64 0.3.2-13.el7 c7-media
fence-virtd-libvirt.x86_64 0.3.2-13.el7 c7-media
fence-virtd-multicast.x86_64 0.3.2-13.el7 c7-media
fence-virtd-serial.x86_64 0.3.2-13.el7 c7-media
libvirt-cim.x86_64 0.6.3-19.el7 c7-media
libvirt-devel.x86_64 4.5.0-10.el7 c7-media
libvirt-docs.x86_64 4.5.0-10.el7 c7-media
libvirt-java.noarch 0.4.9-4.el7 c7-media
libvirt-java-devel.noarch 0.4.9-4.el7 c7-media
libvirt-snmp.x86_64 0.0.3-5.el7 c7-media
pcp-pmda-kvm.x86_64 4.1.0-4.el7 c7-media
python-virtualenv.noarch 15.1.0-2.el7 c7-media
redland-virtuoso.x86_64 1.0.16-6.el7 c7-media
virt-top.x86_64 1.0.8-24.el7 c7-media
virt-who.noarch 0.22.5-1.el7 c7-media
virtuoso-opensource.x86_64 1:6.1.6-6.el7 c7-media
[root@C76 ~]#

7.设置自动启动

[root@C76 ~]# systemctl start libvirtd
[root@C76 ~]# systemctl enable libvirtd

[root@C76 ~]# lsmod | grep kvm
kvm_intel 183621 0
kvm 586948 1 kvm_intel
irqbypass 13503 1 kvm
[root@C76 ~]#

建立vm-data目录
[root@C76 ~]# mkdir -p /vm-data/iso
[root@C76 ~]# mkdir -p /vm-data/vm-image

8.安装虚机监控工具

[root@C76 iso]# yum -y install virt-top virt-who

[root@C76 iso]# virt-
virt-clone virt-manager virt-viewer virt-who-password
virt-host-validate virt-pki-validate virt-what virt-xml
virt-install virt-top virt-who virt-xml-validate
[root@C76 iso]# virt-

[root@C76 images]# virsh version
Compiled against library: libvirt 4.5.0
Using library: libvirt 4.5.0
Using API: QEMU 4.5.0
Running hypervisor: QEMU 1.5.3

[root@C76 images]#

9.安装虚机磁盘镜像工具集和电源管理接口

[root@C76 images]# yum -y install acpid
[root@C76 images]# yum -y install libguestfs-tools

[root@C76 images]# yum list | grep libguest
libguestfs.x86_64 1:1.38.2-12.el7 @c7-media
libguestfs-tools.noarch 1:1.38.2-12.el7 @c7-media
libguestfs-tools-c.x86_64 1:1.38.2-12.el7 @c7-media
libguestfs-inspect-icons.noarch 1:1.38.2-12.el7 c7-media
libguestfs-java.x86_64 1:1.38.2-12.el7 c7-media
[root@C76 images]#

// virt- 命令从12个增加到38个
[root@C76 images]# virt-
virt-alignment-scan virt-edit virt-make-fs virt-top
virt-builder virt-filesystems virt-manager virt-viewer
virt-builder-repository virt-format virt-pki-validate virt-what
virt-cat virt-get-kernel virt-rescue virt-who
virt-clone virt-host-validate virt-resize virt-who-password
virt-copy-in virt-index-validate virt-sparsify virt-win-reg
virt-copy-out virt-inspector virt-sysprep virt-xml
virt-customize virt-install virt-tail virt-xml-validate
virt-df virt-log virt-tar-in
virt-diff virt-ls virt-tar-out
[root@C76 images]#


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